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Zika Virus and Pregnancy

Zika was reported in May 2015 in South America and since then has spread throughout the Americas. The virus spreads to humans primarily through infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Symptoms of the disease are non-specific but may include fever, rash, arthralgias, and conjunctivitis. Zika during pregnancy has been associated with birth defects, specifically significant microcephaly. However, much is not yet known about Zika virus in pregnancy. Uncertainties include the incidence of Zika virus infection among pregnant women in areas of Zika virus transmission, the rate of vertical transmission and the rate with which infected fetuses manifest complications such as microcephaly or demise. The absence of this important information makes management and decision-making in the setting of potential Zika virus exposure (i.e. travel to endemic areas) or maternal infection, difficult.  Currently, there is no vaccine or treatment for this infection. 

Information on this webpage, including recommendations for management, will be updated periodically to reflect changing evidence and emerging consensus. 

SMFM and ACOG have issued a Practice Advisory on the Zika virus about prevention strategies and current guidance for management of pregnant women.

Additional Sources of Information about Zika

Further SMFM Material:

CDC Material: 

WHO Information:

State Health Department Recommendations: 

Journal Resources

Other Sites

Zika material for patients

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