Joint Committee Opinion #743, Low-dose aspirin use during pregnancy
Low-dose aspirin has been used during pregnancy, most commonly to prevent or delay the onset of preeclampsia. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued the Hypertension in Pregnancy Task Force Report recommending daily low-dose aspirin beginning in the late first trimester for women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and preterm delivery at less than 34 0/7 weeks of gestation, or for women with more than one prior pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published a similar guideline, although the list of indications for low-dose aspirin use was more expansive. Daily low-dose aspirin use in pregnancy is considered safe and is associated with a low likelihood of serious maternal, or fetal complications, or both, related to use. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine support the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guideline criteria for prevention of preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin (81 mg/day) prophylaxis is recommended in women at high risk of preeclampsia and should be initiated between 12 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation (optimally before 16 weeks) and continued daily until delivery. Low-dose aspirin prophylaxis should be considered for women with more than one of several moderate risk factors for preeclampsia. Women at risk of preeclampsia are defined based on the presence of one or more high-risk factors (history of preeclampsia, multifetal gestation, renal disease, autoimmune disease, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and chronic hypertension) or more than one of several moderate-risk factors (first pregnancy, maternal age of 35 years or older, a body mass index greater than 30, family history of preeclampsia, sociodemographic characteristics, and personal history factors). In the absence of high risk factors for preeclampsia, current evidence does not support the use of prophylactic low-dose aspirin for the prevention of early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, or preterm birth.