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SMFM Fetal Anomalies Consult Series #2: Extremities

This SMFM Consult series focuses on the extremities. Malformations that involve the extremities are seen frequently on ultrasound images and can be isolated or associated with other anomalies. The fetal extremities are an integral part of the fetal anatomic survey, and detection of skeletal anomalies is a key component of prenatal diagnosis. The basic anatomic survey (CPT 76805) requires documentation only of the presence of arms and legs. A detailed anatomy survey (CPT 76811) requires documenting the number, architecture, and position of the arms, legs, feet, and digits.

This series reviews the sonographic diagnosis, genetic evaluation, and potential treatment and outcome of the following abnormalities that affect the fetal extremities: 

  • Amniotic band sequence 
  • Arthrogryposis
  • Club foot 
  • Polydactyly 
  • Radial ray malformation