SMFM Consult Series #49: Cesarean scar pregnancy
Cesarean scar pregnancy is a complication in which an early pregnancy implants in the scar from a prior cesarean delivery. This condition presents a substantial risk for severe maternal morbidity because of challenges in securing a prompt diagnosis, as well as uncertainty regarding optimal treatment once identified. Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality for cesarean scar pregnancy diagnosis, although a correct and timely determination can be difficult. Surgical, medical, and minimally invasive therapies have been described for cesarean scar pregnancy management, but the optimal treatment is not known. Women who decline treatment of a cesarean scar pregnancy should be counseled regarding the risk for severe morbidity. The following are Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recommendations: We recommend against expectant management of cesarean scar pregnancy (GRADE 1B); we suggest operative resection (with transvaginal or laparoscopic approaches when possible) or ultrasound-guided vacuum aspiration be considered for surgical management of cesarean scar pregnancy and that sharp curettage alone be avoided (GRADE 2C); we suggest intragestational methotrexate for medical treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy, with or without other treatment modalities (GRADE 2C); we recommend that systemic methotrexate alone not be used to treat cesarean scar pregnancy (GRADE 1C); in women who choose expectant management and continuation of a cesarean scar pregnancy, we recommend repeat cesarean delivery between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks of gestation (GRADE 1C); we recommend that women with a cesarean scar pregnancy be advised of the risks of another pregnancy and counseled regarding effective contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraception and permanent contraception (GRADE 1C).