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Special Report of the Society for Maternal- Fetal Medicine Placenta Accreta Spectrum Ultrasound Marker Task Force: Consensus on definition of markers and approach to the ultrasound examination in pregnancies at risk for placenta accreta spectrum

Placenta accreta spectrum includes the full range of abnormal placental attachment to the uterus or other
structures, encompassing placenta accreta, placenta increta, placenta percreta, morbidly adherent
placenta, and invasive placentation. The incidence of placenta accreta spectrum has increased in recent
years, largely driven by increasing rates of cesarean delivery. Prenatal detection of placenta accreta
spectrum is primarily made by ultrasound and is important to reducematernal morbidity associatedwith the
condition. Despite a large body of research on various placenta accreta spectrum ultrasound markers and
their screening performance, inconsistencies in the literature persist. In response to the need for standardizing
the definitions of placenta accreta spectrum markers and the approach to the ultrasound examination,
the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine convened a task force with representatives from the
American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the
American College of Radiology, the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, the
Society for Radiologists in Ultrasound, the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography, and the
Gottesfeld-Hohler Memorial Ultrasound Foundation. The goals of the task force were to assess placenta
accreta spectrum sonographic markers on the basis of available data and expert consensus, provide a
standardized approach to the prenatal ultrasound evaluation of the uterus and placenta in pregnancies at
risk of placenta accreta spectrum, and identify research gaps in the field. This manuscript provides information
on the Placenta Accreta Spectrum Task Force process and findings.