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SMFM Special Statement: Beyond the scalpel: in utero fetal gene therapy and curative medicine

Pain is a complex phenomenon that involves more than a simple physical response to external stimuli. In maternal-fetal surgical procedures, fetal analgesia is used primarily to blunt fetal autonomic responses and minimize fetal movement. The purpose of this Consult is to review the literature on what is known about the potential for fetal awareness of pain and to discuss the indications for and the risk-benefit calculus involved in the use of fetal anesthesia and analgesia.