SMFM Consult Series #60: Management of pregnancies resulting from in vitro fertilization
The use of assisted reproductive technology has increased in the United States in the past several decades. Although most of these pregnancies are uncomplicated, in vitro fertilization is associated with an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes primarily caused by the increased risks of prematurity and low birthweight associated with in vitro fertilization pregnancies. This Consult discusses the management of pregnancies achieved with in vitro fertilization and provides recommendations based on the available evidence. The recommendations by the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine are as follows: (1) we suggest that genetic counseling be offered to all patients undergoing or who have undergone in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (GRADE 2C); (2) regardless of whether preimplantation genetic testing has been performed, we recommend that all patients who have achieved pregnancy with in vitro fertilization be offered the options of prenatal genetic screening and diagnostic testing via chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis (GRADE 1C); (3) we recommend that the accuracy of first-trimester screening tests, including cell-free DNA for aneuploidy, be discussed with patients undergoing or who have undergone in vitro fertilization (GRADE 1A); (4) when multifetal pregnancies do occur, we recommend that counseling be offered regarding the option of multifetal pregnancy reduction (GRADE 1C); (5) we recommend that a detailed obstetrical ultrasound examination (CPT 76811) be performed for pregnancies achieved with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (GRADE 1B); (6) we suggest that fetal echocardiography be offered to patients with pregnancies achieved with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (GRADE 2C); (7) we recommend that a careful examination of the placental location, placental shape, and cord insertion site be performed at the time of the detailed fetal anatomy ultrasound, including evaluation for vasa previa (GRADE 1B); (8) although visualization of the cervix at the 18 0/7 to 22 6/7 weeks of gestation anatomy assessment with either a transabdominal or endovaginal approach is recommended, we do not recommend serial cervical length assessment as a routine practice for pregnancies achieved with in vitro fertilization (GRADE 1C); (9) we suggest that an assessment of fetal growth be performed in the third trimester for pregnancies achieved with in vitro fertilization; however, serial growth ultrasounds are not recommended for the sole indication of in vitro fertilization (GRADE 2B); (10) we do not recommend low-dose aspirin for patients with pregnancies achieved with IVF as the sole indication for preeclampsia prophylaxis; however, if 1 or more additional risk factors are present, low-dose aspirin is recommended (GRADE 1B); (11) given the increased risk for stillbirth, we suggest weekly antenatal fetal surveillance beginning by 36 0/7 weeks of gestation for pregnancies achieved with in vitro fertilization (GRADE 2C); (12) in the absence of studies focused specifically on timing of delivery for pregnancies achieved with IVF, we recommend shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers when considering induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation (GRADE 1C).