SMFM Consult #69: Hepatitis B in pregnancy: updated guidelines

Publications & Guidelines, Consult Series,

More than 290 million people worldwide, and almost 2 million people in the United States, are infected with hepatitis B virus, which can lead to chronic hepatitis B, a vaccine-preventable communicable disease. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in pregnancy is estimated to be 0.7% to 0.9% in the United States, with >25,000 infants born annually at risk for chronic infection due to perinatal transmission. Given the burden of disease associated with chronic hepatitis B infection, recent national guidance has expanded both the indications for screening for hepatitis B infection and immunity and the indications for vaccination. The purpose of this document is to aid clinicians caring for pregnant patients in screening for hepatitis B infection and immunity status, discuss the perinatal risks of hepatitis B infection in pregnancy, determine whether treatment is indicated for maternal or perinatal indications, and recommend hepatitis B vaccination among susceptible patients. The following are the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recommendations: (1) we recommend triple-panel testing (hepatitis B surface antigen screening, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, and total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen) at the initial prenatal visit if not previously documented or known to have been performed (GRADE 1C); (2) we recommend universal hepatitis B surface antigen screening alone at the initial prenatal care visit for all pregnancies where there has been a previously documented negative triple-panel test (GRADE 1B); (3) we recommend that individuals with unknown hepatitis B surface antigen screening status be tested on any presentation for care in pregnancy; we also recommend that those with clinical hepatitis or those with risk factors for acute hepatitis B infection be tested at the time of admission to a birthing facility when delivery is anticipated (GRADE 1B); (4) we do not recommend altering routine intrapartum care in individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B; administration of neonatal immunoprophylaxis is standard of care in these situations (GRADE 1B); (5) we do not recommend cesarean delivery for the sole indication of reducing perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission (GRADE 1B); (6) we recommend that individuals with HBV infection can breastfeed as long as the infant has received immunoprophylaxis at birth (GRADE 1C); (7) we suggest individuals with hepatitis B infection who desire invasive testing may have the procedure performed after an informed discussion on risks and benefits in the context of shared decision-making and in the context of how testing will affect clinical care (GRADE 2C); (8) in individuals with hepatitis viral loads >200,000 IU/mL (>5.3 log 10 IU/mL), we recommend antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir (tenofovir alafenamide at 25 mg daily or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at 300 mg daily) in the third trimester (initiated at 28–32 weeks of gestation) as an adjunctive strategy to immunoprophylaxis to reduce perinatal transmission (GRADE 1B); (9) we recommend administering hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobin within 12 hours of birth to all newborns of hepatitis B surface antigen–positive pregnant patients or those with unknown or undocumented hepatitis B surface antigen status, regardless of whether antiviral therapy has been given during the pregnancy to the pregnant patient (GRADE 1B); and (10) we recommend hepatitis B vaccination in pregnancy for all individuals without serologic evidence of immunity or documented history of vaccination (GRADE 1C).

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TAGS: hepatitis B, hepatitis
CATEGORIES: Consult Series